Three years later Antony was convinced that he and Octavian could never come to terms. They all lived lives full of intrigue, but the children were also protected by the strong guardian, Olympias. [115][117][118][note 29] Given his close relationship with the Ptolemies, Pompey ultimately decided that Egypt would be his place of refuge, where he could replenish his forces. [421][422][423][note 67] Both the Berlin Cleopatra and Vatican Cleopatra have royal diadems, similar facial features, and perhaps once resembled the face of her bronze statue housed in the Temple of Venus Genetrix. [456] Works of Islamic historiography written in Arabic covered the reign of Cleopatra, such as the 10th-century Meadows of Gold by Al-Masudi,[457] although his work erroneously claimed that Octavian died soon after Cleopatra's suicide. See more ideas about egypt, ptolemaic dynasty, hellenistic. [23], Roman interventionism in Egypt predated the reign of Cleopatra. [366][368] However, Ptolemy was eventually executed by the Roman emperor Caligula in 40 AD, perhaps under the pretense that Ptolemy had unlawfully minted his own royal coinage and utilized regalia reserved for the Roman emperor. [258][259] When this was declined, Antony marched his army into Armenia, defeated their forces and captured the king and Armenian royal family. [48][49] Ptolemy XII responded to the threat of possible annexation by offering remuneration and lavish gifts to powerful Roman statesmen, such as Pompey during his campaign against Mithridates VI of Pontus, and eventually Julius Caesar after he became Roman consul in 59 BC. [68][71] As a young cavalry officer, Mark Antony was under Gabinius's command. Cleopatra actively influenced Roman politics at a crucial period, and she came to represent, as did no other woman of antiquity, the prototype of the romantic femme fatale. [340][note 56] With the fall of the Ptolemaic Kingdom, the Roman province of Egypt was established,[341][296][342][note 57] marking the end of the Hellenistic period. After the death of Cleopatra, Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire, marking the end of the second to last Hellenistic state and the age that had lasted since the reign of Alexander(336–323 BC). [224][211] Although the agreement struck at Brundisium solidified Antony's control of the Roman Republic's territories east of the Ionian Sea, it also stipulated that he concede Italia, Hispania, and Gaul, and marry Octavian's sister Octavia the Younger, a potential rival for Cleopatra. [354][355][356] Apparent financial troubles led Cleopatra to debase her coinage, which included silver and bronze currencies but no gold coins like those of some of her distant Ptolemaic predecessors. Had her power lasted, she might have become the greatest female sovereign of all time. She ruled with her brother-husband, Ptolemy XIV, and then with her son Caesarion. [331][332][304] Plutarch relates this tale, but then suggests an implement (κνῆστις, knêstis, lit. [240][217][236] She also received Ptolemais Akko (modern Acre, Israel), a city that was established by Ptolemy II. [5][105][106][note 28], In the summer of 49 BC, Cleopatra and her forces were still fighting against Ptolemy XIII within Alexandria when Pompey's son Gnaeus Pompeius arrived, seeking military aid on behalf of his father. Berenice was killed in 55 BC when Ptolemy returned to Egypt with Roman military assistance. [390] In the visual arts, the sculpted depiction of Cleopatra as a free-standing nude figure committing suicide began with the 16th-century sculptors Bartolommeo Bandinelli and Alessandro Vittoria. [473] In addition to her portrayal as a "vampire" queen, Bara's Cleopatra also incorporated tropes familiar from 19th-century Orientalist painting, such as despotic behavior, mixed with dangerous and overt female sexuality. the asp) rises between her legs, Eros floats above, and Anton, the alleged ancestor of the Antonian family, looks on in despair as his descendant Antony is led to his doom. [278][280] During the next senatorial session, Octavian entered the Senate house with armed guards and levied his own accusations against the consuls. [399][405][406] However, she was depicted in an Egyptian statue as the goddess Isis,[407] while some of her coinage depicts her as Venus-Aphrodite. [335][336][314] Caesarion, now Ptolemy XV, would reign for a mere 18 days until executed on the orders of Octavian on 29 August 30 BC, after returning to Alexandria under the false pretense that Octavian would allow him to be king. [438] A steel engraving published by John Sartain in 1885 depicting the painting as described in the archaeological report shows Cleopatra wearing authentic clothing and jewelry of Egypt in the late Hellenistic period,[439] as well as the radiant crown of the Ptolemaic rulers, as seen in their portraits on various coins minted during their respective reigns. [292] They also lost the support of Malichus I, which would prove to have strategic consequences. [247] Some 50 years before, Cornelia Africana, daughter of Scipio Africanus, had been the first living Roman woman to have a statue dedicated to her. [305] Octavian was impressed by his speech and sense of loyalty, so he allowed him to maintain his position in Judea, further isolating Antony and Cleopatra. [115][106][116], In Greece, Caesar and Pompey's forces engaged each other at the decisive Battle of Pharsalus on 9 August 48 BC, leading to the destruction of most of Pompey's army and his forced flight to Tyre, Lebanon. [163][164], Caesar departed from Egypt around April 47 BC, allegedly to confront Pharnaces II of Pontus, the son of Mithridates VI of Pontus, who was stirring up trouble for Rome in Anatolia. Julius Caesar pursued Pompey to Egypt in 48 bce. [258][261] News of this event was heavily criticized in Rome as a perversion of time-honored Roman rites and rituals to be enjoyed instead by an Egyptian queen. The line had been founded by Alexander’s general Ptolemy, who became King Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt. [427] Discovered near a sanctuary of Isis in Rome and dated to the 1st century BC, it is either Roman or Hellenistic-Egyptian in origin. [422][424][423][note 68] Both heads are dated to the mid-1st century BC and were found in Roman villas along the Via Appia in Italy, the Vatican Cleopatra having been unearthed in the Villa of the Quintilii. Cleopatra now ruled with her infant son, Ptolemy XV Caesar. [352] Although the command economy that she managed was more of an ideal than a reality,[353] the government attempted to impose price controls, tariffs, and state monopolies for certain goods, fixed exchange rates for foreign currencies, and rigid laws forcing peasant farmers to stay in their villages during planting and harvesting seasons. The only member of her house to learn Egyptian, she was said to be a popular ruler. [277], A papyrus document dated to February 33 BC, later used to wrap a mummy, contains the signature of Cleopatra, probably written by an official authorized to sign for her. She is the seventh in the Ptolemy dynasty to bear the name Cleopatra, which means glory of the father. [38][39][40][note 15] Cleopatra Tryphaena disappears from official records a few months after the birth of Cleopatra in 69 BC. [413] Cleopatra had actually achieved this masculine look in coinage predating her affair with Antony, such as the coins struck at the Ashkelon mint during her brief period of exile to Syria and the Levant, which Joann Fletcher explains as her attempt to appear like her father and as a legitimate successor to a male Ptolemaic ruler. [192][193][172][note 44], Octavian, Antony, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate in 43 BC, in which they were each elected for five-year terms to restore order in the Republic and bring Caesar's assassins to justice. The Latinized form Cleopatra comes from the Ancient Greek Kleopátra (Κλεοπάτρα), meaning "glory of her father",[6] from κλέος (kléos, "glory") and πᾰτήρ (patḗr, "father"). Aided by Julius Caesar, her lover, she returned to power upon her brother’s death in 47. Antony proclaimed Caesarion to be Caesar’s son—thus relegating Octavian, who had been adopted by Caesar as his son and heir, to legal illegitimacy. [58][59][55][note 18] Ptolemy XII remained publicly silent on the death of his brother, a decision which, along with ceding traditional Ptolemaic territory to the Romans, damaged his credibility among subjects already enraged by his economic policies. [394][395] Plutarch described Cleopatra as having had a stronger personality and charming wit than physical beauty. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [3][421][423][note 69] Francisco Pina Polo writes that Cleopatra's coinage present her image with certainty and asserts that the sculpted portrait of the Berlin head is confirmed as having a similar profile with her hair pulled back into a bun, a diadem, and a hooked nose. [483] Through her father, Ptolemy XII Auletes, she was a descendant of two prominent companions of Alexander the Great of Macedon: the general Ptolemy I Soter, founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, and Seleucus I Nicator, the Macedonian Greek founder of the Seleucid Empire of West Asia. Cleopatra buried Antony and then committed suicide. [343][344][note 7] In January of 27 BC Octavian was renamed Augustus ("the revered") and amassed constitutional powers that established him as the first Roman emperor, inaugurating the Principate era of the Roman Empire. [235], Antony summoned Cleopatra to Antioch to discuss pressing issues, such as Herod's kingdom and financial support for his Parthian campaign. [151] However, Antony, an officer of his, helped to secure Caesar's appointment as dictator lasting for a year, until October 47 BC, providing Caesar with the legal authority to settle the dynastic dispute in Egypt. [461] He was followed by William Shakespeare, whose Antony and Cleopatra, largely based on Plutarch, was first performed in 1608 and provided a somewhat salacious view of Cleopatra in stark contrast to England's own Virgin Queen. [283][281], During the spring of 32 BC Antony and Cleopatra traveled to Athens, where she persuaded Antony to send Octavia an official declaration of divorce. In the visual arts, her ancient depictions include Roman busts, paintings, and sculptures, cameo carvings and glass, Ptolemaic and Roman coinage, and reliefs. [13][487][489][note 79], Cleopatra I Syra was the only member of the Ptolemaic dynasty known for certain to have introduced some non-Greek ancestry. She was a descendant of Ptolemy I, a general in Alexander the Great’s army and the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. [306][304] Cleopatra had no other option but to stay in Egypt and negotiate with Octavian. Cleopatra was born in Alexandria, Egypt to the Macedonian Greek dynasty in 69BC and was a descendant of its founder, Ptolemy I Soter. The rumour quickly spread that Antony also intended to transfer the capital from Rome to Alexandria. [46][47], In 65 BC the Roman censor Marcus Licinius Crassus argued before the Roman Senate that Rome should annex Ptolemaic Egypt, but his proposed bill and the similar bill of tribune Servilius Rullus in 63 BC were rejected. [270][269], In late 34 BC, Antony and Octavian engaged in a heated war of propaganda that would last for years. [300] A male servant holds the mouth of an artificial Egyptian crocodile (possibly an elaborate tray handle), while another man standing by is dressed as a Roman. [146][126][147][note 37], Sometime between January and March of 47 BC, Caesar's reinforcements arrived, including those led by Mithridates of Pergamon and Antipater the Idumaean. [119][117][122][note 31] Ptolemy XIII believed he had demonstrated his power and simultaneously defused the situation by having Pompey's head, severed and embalmed, sent to Caesar, who arrived in Alexandria by early October and took up residence at the royal palace. [432][note 71] Her ivory-white skin, round face, long aquiline nose, and large round eyes were features common in both Roman and Ptolemaic depictions of deities. [127][130][131] Plutarch provides an entirely different and perhaps mythical account that alleges she was bound inside a bed sack to be smuggled into the palace to meet Caesar. [223] Fulvia and Antony's brother Lucius Antonius were eventually besieged by Octavian at Perusia (modern Perugia, Italy) and then exiled from Italy, after which Fulvia died at Sicyon in Greece while attempting to reach Antony. Alexander Helios was awarded Armenia and the territory beyond the Euphrates, his infant brother Ptolemy the lands to the west of it. The Macedonian … Whether Caesar was the father of Caesarion, as his name implies, cannot now be known. In the Liberators' civil war of 43–42 BC, Cleopatra sided with the Roman Second Triumvirate formed by Caesar's grandnephew and heir Octavian, Mark Antony, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of its founder Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general and companion of Alexander the Great. [110][111][112] By the spring of 48 BC Cleopatra had traveled to Roman Syria with her younger sister, Arsinoe IV, to gather an invasion force that would head to Egypt. [405][430] The commission of the painting most likely coincides with the erection of the Temple of Venus Genetrix in the Forum of Caesar in September 46 BC, where Caesar had a gilded statue erected depicting Cleopatra. [58][60][61] Ptolemy XII was then exiled from Egypt by force, traveling first to Rhodes, then Athens, and finally the villa of triumvir Pompey in the Alban Hills, near Praeneste, Italy. It is likely, but not proven, that the two married soon after their father’s death. [458], Cleopatra appeared in miniatures for illuminated manuscripts, such as a depiction of her and Antony lying in a Gothic-style tomb by the Boucicaut Master in 1409. [428], Other possible sculpted depictions of Cleopatra include one in the British Museum, London, made of limestone, which perhaps only depicts a woman in her entourage during her trip to Rome. [92][93] Inheriting her father's debts, Cleopatra also owed the Roman Republic 17.5 million drachmas. Phillip’s other children were their step-siblings. [464] Fictional novels such as H. Rider Haggard's Cleopatra (1889) and Théophile Gautier's One of Cleopatra's Nights (1838) depicted the queen as a sensual and mystic Easterner, while the Egyptologist Georg Ebers's Cleopatra (1894) was more grounded in historical accuracy. [note 54] The legal argument for war was based less on Cleopatra's territorial acquisitions, with former Roman territories ruled by her children with Antony, and more on the fact that she was providing military support to a private citizen now that Antony's triumviral authority had expired. [305], Cleopatra perhaps started to view Antony as a liability by the late summer of 31 BC, when she prepared to leave Egypt to her son Caesarion. The former gave a fiery speech condemning Octavian, now a private citizen without public office, and introduced pieces of legislation against him. Greeks are European. The means of her death is uncertain, though Classical writers came to believe that she had killed herself by means of an asp, symbol of divine royalty. [425] A third sculpted portrait of Cleopatra accepted by scholars as being authentic survives at the Archaeological Museum of Cherchell, Algeria. [50][51][52][note 16] However, Ptolemy XII's profligate behavior bankrupted him and he was forced to acquire loans from the Roman banker Gaius Rabirius Postumus. [405][430] This statue likely formed the basis of her depictions in both sculpted art as well as this painting at Pompeii. The Ptolemaic dynasty , sometimes also known as the Lagids (/ˈlædʒɪdz/) or Lagidae (/ˈlædʒɪdi/; Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. [272][273] Cleopatra was said to have brainwashed Mark Antony with witchcraft and sorcery and was as dangerous as Homer's Helen of Troy in destroying civilization. [293] Antony and Cleopatra lost several skirmishes against Octavian around Actium during the summer of 31 BC, while defections to Octavian's camp continued, including Antony's long-time companion Dellius[293] and the allied kings Amyntas of Galatia and Deiotaros of Paphlagonia. [408][note 64] Cleopatra was also the first foreign queen to have her image appear on Roman currency. [72][74], Gabinius was put on trial in Rome for abusing his authority, for which he was acquitted, but his second trial for accepting bribes led to his exile, from which he was recalled seven years later in 48 BC by Caesar. [35][498][499] Cleopatra V (or VI) was expelled from the court of Ptolemy XII in late 69 BC, a few months after the birth of Cleopatra, while Ptolemy XII's three younger children were all born during the absence of his wife. [210][211] In Egypt, Antony continued to enjoy the lavish royal lifestyle he had witnessed aboard Cleopatra's ship docked at Tarsos. This unique characteristic was maintained through intermarriage; most often these marriages were either between brother and sister or even uncle and niece. [35][498][note 86] Strabo was the only ancient historian who claimed that Ptolemy XII's children born after Berenice IV, including Cleopatra, were illegitimate. [303] Antony nearly committed suicide after hearing news of this but was stopped by his staff officers. [161][162] Caesar could have had an interest in the Nile cruise owing to his fascination with geography; he was well-read in the works of Eratosthenes and Pytheas, and perhaps wanted to discover the source of the river, but turned back before reaching Ethiopia. The clash, however, proved to be a costly defeat for the Egyptians, forcing Antony and Cleopatra to flee back to Egypt. [53][54][55], In 58 BC the Romans annexed Cyprus and on accusations of piracy drove Ptolemy of Cyprus, Ptolemy XII's brother, to commit suicide instead of enduring exile to Paphos. [58][62][note 20] Berenice IV sent an embassy to Rome to advocate for her rule and oppose the reinstatement of her father Ptolemy XII, but Ptolemy had assassins kill the leaders of the embassy, an incident that was covered up by his powerful Roman supporters. [289][284] Antony wanted to cross the Adriatic Sea and blockade Octavian at either Tarentum or Brundisium,[290] but Cleopatra, concerned primarily with defending Egypt, overrode the decision to attack Italy directly. [228], Relations between Antony and Cleopatra perhaps soured when he not only married Octavia, but also sired her two children, Antonia the Elder in 39 BC and Antonia Minor in 36 BC, and moved his headquarters to Athens. For instance, The observation that the left cheek of the, For further information about the painting in the House of Giuseppe II (Joseph II) at Pompeii and the possible identification of Cleopatra as one of the figures, see, For further information on Cleopatra's Macedonian Greek lineage, see, For further information and validation of the foundation of Hellenistic Egypt by Alexander the Great and Cleopatra's ancestry stretching back to Ptolemy I Soter, see, For the Sogdian ancestry of Apama, wife of Seleucus I Nicator, see, For further information on the identity of Cleopatra's mother, see, The family tree and short discussions of the individuals can be found in, Reign of Cleopatra § Egypt under the monarchy of Cleopatra, Cleopatra Testing Poisons on Condemned Prisoners, Death of Cleopatra § Depictions in art and literature, a life-sized Roman-style statue of Cleopatra, the white skin of her face and neck set against a stark black background, "Radio 4 Programmes – A History of the World in 100 Objects, Empire Builders (300 BC – 1 AD), Rosetta Stone", the other sculpted head from Cherchel featuring a veil, "Cleopatra Couldn't Spell (And Neither Can We! [429], Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over her head, now in the Vatican Museums[1][3][421], Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, showing Cleopatra with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over the head, now in the Altes Museum[1][3][421], In the House of Marcus Fabius Rufus at Pompeii, Italy, a mid-1st century BC Second Style wall painting of the goddess Venus holding a cupid near massive temple doors is most likely a depiction of Cleopatra as Venus Genetrix with her son Caesarion. [278][281] Intimidated by this act, the consuls and over 200 senators still in support of Antony fled Rome the next day to join the side of Antony. The Macedonians had formed themselves into a ruling caste. Theodotus was found years later in Asia, by Marcus Junius Brutus, and executed. [165][166][167], Caesarion, Cleopatra's alleged child with Caesar, was born 23 June 47 BC and was originally named "Pharaoh Caesar", as preserved on a stele at the Serapeum in Memphis. [444] The sculpture also has pronounced eyes that share similarities with Roman copies of Ptolemaic sculpted works of art. [390][391] The historians Strabo, Velleius, Valerius Maximus, Pliny the Elder, and Appian, while not offering accounts as full as Plutarch, Josephus, or Dio, provided some details of her life that had not survived in other historical records. [218] She would not see Antony again until 37 BC, but she maintained correspondence, and evidence suggests she kept a spy in his camp. [257][217][252], Dellius was sent as Antony's envoy to Artavasdes II in 34 BC to negotiate a potential marriage alliance that would wed the Armenian king's daughter to Alexander Helios, the son of Antony and Cleopatra. The boys’ sister, Cleopatra Selene, was to be ruler of Cyrene. While Cleopatra was born in Egypt, she traced her family origins to Macedonian Greece and Ptolemy I Soter, one of Alexander the Greats generals. [283][284] Cleopatra's insistence that she be involved in the battle for Greece led to the defections of prominent Romans, such as Ahenobarbus and Lucius Munatius Plancus. Cleopatra Last Queen Of Egypt Uploaded By C. S. Lewis, daughter of king ptolemy xii auletes cleopatra was destined to become the last queen of the macedonian dynasty that ruled egypt between the death of alexander the great in 323 bce and its annexation by rome in 30 bce the line had been founded by alexanders general ptolemy who Then with her two younger brothers and then with her two younger brothers and then with brother-husband! Dressed in the Roman triumph of Octavian and Antony ’ s partner for 11 you are agreeing news. Two points of uncertainty in Cleopatra ’ s death in 47 lost the support of Malichus I, which prove... 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