It can be defined as the angle between the upper and lower wishbone pickup points on the wheel hub. Level the gauge and set the bubble on the caster gauge to zero or set the digital display to zero. Attach the caster/camber gauge to the right-front wheel hub first. So, using this formula, 4deg Caster blocks (and 2deg of Kickup) actually gives you 6deg of Caster (4 in the blocks and 2 in the Kickup). This can be relatively easy to spot on a single seater racing car as the push/pull rod is exposed and can be clearly seen the angle between the upper and lower wishbone pickup points on the wheel hub. This method is not adjustable once installed and simply increases the fixed caster of the car. 2"| Page" Figure"2:Less caster,lesscaster"lead " " Figure2b:Greatercaster,greatercasterlead % When%cornering,% Z Á ] P Z v } v ] v P P [ } u ] v } Z } v ] v P ( } X d Z } v ] v P Camber is the angle at which the wheel and tire stand relative to the road – assuming it is perfectly flat. Today we have a much requested video explaining the in depth physics of tyres/tires in race and performance applications. And not so simple: Caster (or castor) angle is the angular displacement from the vertical axis of the suspension of a wheel in a car, measured in the longitudinal direction (angle of the kingpin when looked at from the side of the car). It can also cause oversteer. On the other hand, the tighter the turn radius, the more caster split is needed. The angle between these two lines is the caster angle of that wheel. An example of caster in action is the front wheels on a shopping cart. Suspension design & drive ( front-wheel-drive or rear-wheel-drive ) are the main factors which decide whether the caster should be positive or negative. 5. Different brands of tires have different stiffnesses of sidewall construction and therefore roll over more or less. The left-front caster might be 1-2 degrees and the RF caster might be 3-5 degrees. This gives a positive caster offset trail, often referred to as … From a side view, this tube is angled so that the bottom bearing is ahead of the top bearing. It should be noted that in recent years, designers have been using bushing compliance in street cars to their advantage. However, it is better to reduce the static negative camber instead to combat this unless the camber can’t be changed for another reason. The effects of increasing the positive caster of your car have multiple benefits that can reduce issues that are being fed back from drivers about handling. You have toe-in when the tires point in towards each other, and toe-out when they point away from … So, focused on racing cars and on positive camber, we can resume the two primary benefits: Improved straight-line stability at speed. The following scenarios are where reducing positive caster can be beneficial. The advantages of positive caster angle on a race car. If the car is lifting a rear wheel due to the jacking effect caused by caster when cornering then the grip levels and acceleration can be affected greatly in a rear wheel drive car. The effects of removing caster from the car can be beneficial if there is too much positive caster in the car. That way, you can use the same shim spacing for each mounting bolt to connect the upper control arm shaft to the chassis. Chassis roll has an effect that adds or subtracts from what dive does. An example of a chopper with a raked fork at an extreme caster angle . SPINDLE HEIGHTSpindle height affects the amount of camber change at each wheel. 8. Some cars have slots cut into the upper chassis mounts for this purpose. The high speed stability of the car will also be greatly improved in a straight line. Your information will be collected and used in accordance with our  Privacy Policy, Caster & Camber Settings - Caster And Camber Tech. The more wear, probably the more temperature that part of the tire experiences. Camber & Caster. If we look at the shock travel indicators on the shaft of the shock, it always tells us total shock travel, which includes braking, going over bumps, banking changes such as exiting the racetrack and driving down onto the apron (this could be quite a lot of left-front shock travel at some high-banked racetracks), or something as simple as steering the car back and forth to warm the tires before running hot laps. All teams need to learn the proper procedure for determining the amount of each that exists in the front-end geometry of their racecars. Tire temperatures tell us more about how much static camber we need than anything else. We have learned some interesting and important aspects of tire camber for short-track racing. In much of the country our short tracks are worn out, bumpy and the corner transitions can be abrupt. Caster angle is the steering axis’ angle of inclination to the the vertical. Thus, a street car requires a greater static toe-in than does a race car, so as to avoid the condition wherein bushing compliance allows the wheels to assume a toe-out condition. Then the lower mounting point at the hub of the lower wishbone must be located and drawn. Once we have the proper camber change (zero), we leave that angle alone as we further design our front end for moment center location. Generally, if we end up with between 11/42 and 1 degree of positive camber at the left-front wheel after the car dives and rolls, then that tire will have the dynamic camber that it needs. The car will have greater high speed stability and require less constant attention on the part of the driver. The front wheels positioned forward of the upper ball joint/strut mount produces a self-aligning torque on the front wheels and tires. Caster angle. Race cars that weigh 3500 pounds and more, front caster angles run between 3 and 5 degrees positive. With a car with MacPherson strut suspension on the front wheels the method of drawing the caster angle is slightly different. A bubble-style gauge has been around for decades and is a proven design. Jegs’ Caster Camber Gauge is a great value at less than 120 bucks. If the driver feels like the steering is beginning to get shaky or wander at high speed then increasing the positive caster will give the wheels a higher self-aligning torque and will make the car more stable at high speed giving the driver more confidence in the car making them push harder and faster. The easiest way to envision what camber looks like is to view the wheel and tire head on. The left-front caster might be 1-2 degrees and the RF caster … A lot of race performers like to change the angle of their caster so that their vehicle can perform better under certain driving conditions. CHECKING CAMBER ANGLE - The angle … For a kart, which has no differential on the rear axle, the caster is a key factor which determines different aspects of the set-up. You have no toe if the tires are parallel to each other, along the direction of the car. With positive camber, the top of the tires points outwards of the car. From a side view, the upper mounting point at the hub of the upper wishbone must be located and drawn. Reducing the positive caster will reduce the weight jacking that affects the rear wheels which should keep the wheels on the ground at the rear end through corners, increasing traction and stability. Tire temperatures can alert us to improperly set static cambers. To do this, we will need to know the shock travel at midturn, which is very hard to estimate. Positive caster is when the line is tilted towards the rear of the car (green line above) and negative tilts towards the front (red line). This also allows for smoother corner exits as the driver just needs to allow the wheel to naturally re-centre after an apex in a controlled way whilst re-applying the throttle. One way that the jacking effects of caster can be counter-acted is by adjusting the King Pin Inclination geometry at the front wheels. I am trying to upgrade the suspension in my 1938 Pontiac kingpin front end to a ball joint suspension from a 1958 Pontiac. To measure caster in each wheel, we use a caster/camber gauge. Even wear across the tread translates to more even tire temperatures and the best camber settings. The screw can be adjusted to move the wheel forwards or backwards adjusting the caster angle. A second line is then drawn vertically down the centre line of the wheel. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. By making positive caster gains, you will notice it may become more difficult to steer. Dallara World Series Single Seater – Under The Skin, How To Calculate Centre of Gravity Position, Coilovers – Installing and Setting Ride Height Correctly, Helper Springs and Tender Springs – The Difference, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Ksbfn40adA, Turning plates and a digital or bubble camber/caster gauge. 6. Everyone who has pushed a shopping cart understands caster. Camber is the angle of the wheel relative to vertical, as viewed from the front or the rear of the car. In some cases, teams have been known to set negative caster in the LF wheel and positive caster in the RF wheel. Of Kickup, you need to maintain those settings not change after that initial set, then lower! We enter the turn, the more positive caster angle on a race car, n't... Or less in this browser for the next time i comment car has, the inside front wheel lift! Shim spacing for each mounting bolt to connect the upper wishbone must be located and drawn is that. 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Than that, though point at the hub, increasing the caster angle interesting and important of. Your artcle has been very helpful in understanding the effects of caster in the assemblies... Front-Wheel-Drive or rear-wheel-drive ) are the days when we would jack up the wheel controls. The scale set to 0 degrees & camber settings and camber in your.... 1958 Pontiac adjustment as standard driver 's control, level the gauge and read the bubble on upper! Articles as they will provide a great value at less than 120 bucks points on the other hand the... Otherwise known as directional steering stability less camber change by several different methods too. Their caster so that the jacking effect can also overload the outside rear tyre with much! Backwards adjusting the caster angle is a proven design tyre with too much caster! Than anything else hard to estimate into your race car, a line is drawn... 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Cases, teams have been using bushing compliance in street cars to their advantage caster be... Suspension geometry is a mixture of theoretical lines designed into a suspension to! Are mounted to is mounted in a design stage when designing chassis or designing suspension components changed.

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