Celebrity Endorsement Marketing Dissertation. This occurs because consumers’ desire harmony in their beliefs, and it would be unstable (unbalanced) to have a positively valued element linked to a negatively valued element. Examples of celebrity endorsement in a sentence, how to use it. Celebrity endorsement have become a widely recognised form of advertising, however there is still some doubt as to whether celebrity endorsements are an effective technique in influencing consumers to purchase. This establishes a positive sentiment connection between the celebrity and the brand (one side of the triangle). Unsurprisingly markets must conduct consumer behaviour research in order to understand their target customer better than other competition and as a result of this it will allow strategic marketing mixes to work more effectively for organisations (Jobber, 2001). Ohanian also suggests that the celebrity spokespeople are more effective when they are knowledgeable, experienced and qualified to talk about the product they are endorsing. Marketers try to select individuals whose traits will maximise message influence. According to Ad Age, a brand that inks an endorsement contract with a celebrity or an athlete can see their stock rise up to .25 as soon as the news … Celebrity branding or celebrity endorsement is a form of advertising campaign or marketing strategy which uses a celebrity's fame or social status to promote a product, brand or service, or to raise awareness about an issue. The initial reason this topic was chosen to research was that the author has a particular interest in this aspect of marketing, and how celebrities are becoming an increasingly attractive tool for organisation to promote their brand and how this technique motivates consumers to purchase. Balance theory (Heider, 1958 cited in Dean, 2002) considers relations among objects the consumer may perceive belong together, linked by association, proximity, similarity, ownership, or common fate. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Advertising is important part of the decision making process as it enables the consumer to learn about products and the availability of that product, if advertising did not exist, consumers would not be aware of any new products on the market. NEVER BEFORE has demand for celebrity involvement in all forms of advertising been higher, or more cost effective. Marketers usually use individuals who have achieved some form of celebrity status to serve as a spokesperson for their brand. Sources: SodaStream, California Milk … In 2004, Jackson signed a deal with Vitaminwater's parent company, which landed him a minority stake in the business. Most celebrities that are hired by an organisation to endorse their product or brand are popular people, television stars, movie actors or famous athletes (Shimp, 2007). For this investigation, the author has specific aims that include: The review of literature will examine past theories and research on celebrity endorsements, outlining relevant areas involving; consumer buyer behaviour, celebrity versus non-celebrity advertising, key attributes organisation require in an endorser and benefits and limitations of using this communication technique. representing the contemporary nature of celebrity endorsement within fashion. Celebrity advertising has become increasingly popular amongst organisations with the attempt to get consumers to spend. According to McCracken (1989) a consumers ‘are constantly moving symbolic properties out of consumer goods into their lives to construct aspects of self and world’. As consumers, our choices are often based upon recommendations from people we trust: friends and family, work colleagues, and our favourite personalities. However Assael (1984 cited in Kamins, 1990) suggests that celebrities are effective endorsers because of their symbolic aspirational reference group association. Also a study by Atkin and Block (1983) emphasised that advertisements that had celebrities appearing in them had more positive effects on consumers than those with non-celebrities. The aim of this literature review is to give a comprehensive discussion of the range of theories which offer frameworks to aid in answering the research questions in relation to the effects sports celebrity endorsements have on consumer buyer behaviour. For example, when a celebrity is starring in a television commercial with a product, it is considered as an endorsement. Although Ohanian (1991) recognises a popular individual’s ability to create awareness and initiate desire for an advertisement, Ohanian concludes that this may not necessarily change consumer’s attitude toward the endorsed brand and that ‘for a celebrity spokesperson to be truly effective, they should be knowledgeable, experienced and qualified to talk about the product’. A source has the power when they can actually administer reward or punishment to the receiver. Of the 79 campaigns we looked at, only four were evaluated. It was widely reported recently that Katie Perry has overtaken Justin Bieber in the race for the largest international base of Twitter followers. As a result, it is becoming familiar for companies to ‘share stars’ (Elliott, 1991; Sloan and Freeman, 1988). The evaluation of an object is affected by how the evaluation will fit with other related attitudes held by the consumer. Copyright © 2003 - 2021 - All Answers Ltd is a company registered in England and Wales. Examples of celebrity endorsements are: Tiger Woods for Tag Heuer; Edu Manano for Lucky Me; Britney Spears for Skechers; Alicia Silverstone for Kamiseta; Bata Reyes for San Minguel Beer. Without your involvement the TVC with Steffi Graf for SURE deodorant would never have happened. This section will show the results obtained from primary data, which will be analysed and evaluated against theoretical research presented within the literature review. As Individuals consumers usually purchase products or services for personal consumption either for private purposes, domestic or a gift means, these can be defined as ‘end users’. Source expertise in persuasive communication, indicates generally that the source’s perceived expertise has a positive impact on attitude change (Horai et al, 1974). Erdogan et al (2001) highlights the rise of celebrity endorsement in the United Kingdom with approximately one in five marketing programs featuring some type of celebrity endorsement. The Image of the Company may be Ruined if the Celebrity’s Image is. Just as one can easily recall examples of celebrity endorsements gone wrong, there are also instances where celebrities have campaigned for a cause with clarity and candour. If problem recognition is high then information search and evaluation of alternative options are two potential further stages in the process. Endorsement Letter for Scholarship. Why use a celebrity to endorse your product or service? This website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the best user experience possible. Neil Patrick Harris begins his fourth year of pitching for the Dutch brewery in 2017, building on his personal brand of humor to coincide with the lighter side of the brewery’s brand. Reference groups vary in how consumers perceive their own characteristics and lifestyles, and whether such celebrity advertising may generate these attitudes and behaviour. Neil Patrick Harris’ Celebrity Endorsement of Heineken Light. If the consumer has pre-existing positive sentiment toward the endorser (the second side of the triangle), it is likely the consumer will form an attitude or change an existing attitude to be positive toward the brand (the third side of the triangle). In many ways, before social media came along, this was the ultimate influencer experience brands could hope to gain. It has been suggested that each member of the household has definable roles within the decision making process which includes: initiator or gatekeeper, influencer, decider, buyer and user (Blackwell et al, 2006 pp. Any fees quoted are approximate, subject to specific quotation and subject to contract. Familiarity: In the celebrity endorsement context, familiarity has been defined as ‘knowledge of the source through exposure’ (Erdogan, 1999 pp 299). During the past 25 years Useful Talent executives have been responsible for generating literally thousands of celebrity led advertising and endorsements contracts, PR campaigns, product launches, corporate entertainment & pesonal appearances. The source may be knowledgeable, popular, and/or physically attractive; typifying the target audience; or have the power to reward or punish the receiver in some manner. Celebrity endorsement on social media. Fabio for I Can’t Believe It’s Not Butter. Branding strategies used by organisations should be aware of factors that may effect an individual’s motivation with regards to needs satisfaction when obtaining products/brands through the initial stages of the consumer decision making process. McCracken (1989) recognised that celebrity endorsement is ‘a ubiquitous feature of modern marketing’. Audiences may also trust the advice provided by some famous persons, and in certain cases celebrities may even be perceived as competent to discuss the product. The pitfalls of the celebrity endorsement were thrown into sharp relief yesterday with the news that two of its brightest (and most expensive) stars do not use the products they advertise. The number of organisations now using celebrities in their advertising has increased, as according to Stephens and Rice (1998) In the USA, the use of celebrity endorsers have increased from a little over 15 percent to approximately 25 percent of all adverts between 1979 and 1997. Motivation occurs when there is a strong ‘desire’ or ‘need’ for a particular product or brand that the consumer wishes to satisfy (Foxall, Goldsmith and Brown, 1998). 50 Cent, was picked to shill for Vitaminwater when the company saw him holding a bottle in a photo (which, ironically, was an ad for another company). Kelman (1961) developed three basic categories of source attributes: credibility, attractiveness and power. (E.g. In 2015, the Labour Party secured the endorsements of Eddie Izzard and Ben Elton who appeared with Coronation Street actress Sally Lindsay at a rally in Warrington. Consumers face various adverts that try to impact the way in which we behave as a consumer. Celebrity’s endorsement is a process of persuasive and informing consumers about the new and existing products available in the market. Expertise: Belch and Belch (2009) states that a spokesperson is often chosen because of their knowledge, experience, and expertise in a particular product or service area. The degree of congruence between the new information (the brand attributes) and the existing information (the celebrity’s characteristics) may then influence the level of recall of the new information. The use of celebrity endorsements is becoming increasing popular amongst organisations to aid in advertising their brand in order to gain a competitive advantage. 8 High-Profile Celebrity Endorsements That Backfired For years, celebrities and companies alike have made regrettable endorsement decisions. Multiple celebrity endorsement. Endorsements for parties Newspapers and magazines National daily newspapers. Transferring of money from one person to another through bank transactions is also considered an endorsement. Freiden (1984) concluded that celebrities are particularly effective endorsers because they are viewed as highly trustworthy, believable, persuasive, and likeable. The use of a celebrity endorser can be seen as the source of a message the company wishes to expose to their target audience. Such findings definitely have to come from somewhere. This investigations main purpose is to explore the influences that celebrity endorsements have on the consumers’ motivation to purchase, in particular focusing on sports celebrities. He's endorsed high-end brands like Haig … 13 examples: A year later, the campaign was ditched in favor of a celebrity endorsement… Empirical studies on the congruency theory frequently focus on the physical attractiveness of the celebrity endorser (Till and Busler, 1998). Millions of dollars are spent per annum on celebrity endorsement contracts on the basis that source effects play an important part in convincing communications. In terms of using sports celebrity endorsements in advertising, it is often used in advertising that strongly depends on a strong brand image from a social perception. The reputation of a company may be destroyed as a result of celebrity scandals. If the communicator (celebrity) and receiver have similar needs, goals, interests and lifestyles, the position advocated by the source is better understood and received. Disclaimer: This dissertation has been written by a student and is not an example of our professional work, which you can see examples of here. We will definitely be using your fantastic service again, We were so pleased that you managed to arrange Bill Bailey for us on behalf of our client FACE, Thanks for taking the trouble to visit us to discuss the project, We hope you will accept this Fortnum & Mason hamper on behalf of Jenni Falcone. To our knowledge, no other agency has our experience, or has been as successful in matching the right celebrity to the right campaign at the right fee for so many years. Firstly, the meaning related with the celebrity moves from the endorser to the product/brand. This chapter will examine both primary and secondary research methods that have been utilised in this study to enable the author to meet the specified aims and objectives. Previous research indicated the importance celebrity endorsements have on consumer behaviour. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! With the growing importance of social media in a shopper’s purchase journey, companies are evolving and stepping up the endorsement game across different channels. 13 examples: A year later, the campaign was ditched in favor of a celebrity endorsement… Company Registration No: 4964706. Finally, in the consumption process, the brand’s meaning is acquired by the customer. By Seb Joseph 1 Oct 2012 12:00 am. Celebrity endorsements gone bad. Disadvantages of Celebrity Endorsement. It’s one of the most quoted television advertisements … Drew Barrymore For Crocs. Dissertation Nor that the Useful Group was necessarily wholly responsible for any specific endorsement or activity used herein for illustrative purposes. It's not the only Irish brand basking in the glow of an online celebrity endorsement. Likability: Marketers recognise the value of using spokespeople who are admired: TV and movie stars, athletes, musicians, and other popular figures. It is a marketing communication tool that is used widely across western culture thus being relevant and significant in today’s market. Drew Barrymore released her shoe line via Crocs just in time for … And these assessments do not show evidence that celebrity endorsement specifically contributed to achieving campaign results. Agrawal and Kamukura (1995) found that on average ‘firms announcing contracts with celebrities experienced a gain of 44 percent in excess returns’. Marin, 1996; Till and Busler, 1998; Till and Shimp, 1998). The central point of this investigation will focus on whether celebrity endorsement has an impact on consumer’s motivation to purchase, and will be primarily looking at sports celebrities. This topic will be examined further during the next section. Ohanian (1990, cited in Belch and Belch, 2009) found that the perceived expertise of celebrity endorsers was more important in explaining purchase intentions than their attractiveness or trustworthiness. Reference this. However the degree in which a consumer will actively search to resolve need deficiency relies on the perceived importance of the ‘problem’ and the distinction between desired and current state. Celebrity endorsements are this recommendation process writ large. NEVER BEFORE has there existed so many TV channels, websites and alternative media such as YouTube, eager to carry these compulsive and persuasive messages, as well as celebrity gossip about them. Although traditional advertising knowledge suggests the meaning of an elite product contract with the celebrity, uniqueness comes with a high price label. Celebrities past to present have tried their hand at commercial fame, many prevailing to success, while others left audiences confused - like Kathy Griffin's expletive-filled ad for Squatty Potty. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. According to Friedman and Friedman (1979 cited in Atkin and Block, 1983), a celebrity spokesperson is more effective for products high in psychological or social risks relative to a ‘normal’ spokesperson; such elements include good taste, self image and opinion of others. Due to the characteristics related to the purchasing process, this literature review will focus on individual buying behaviour in relation to sports celebrity endorsement. Customers will be influenced by various factors such as reference groups, social effects as well as local cultural factors, these aspects impact on the way in which a consumer will make decisions. Attractiveness of the celebrity: This principle states that an attractive endorser will have a positive impact on the endorsement. Shimp (1997) claimed in his study that nearly 25% of US-based commercials used celebrities. The final characteristic Kelman’s classification is ‘source power’. The use of images and names herein does not necessarily imply exclusive management or representation by the Useful Group. The nature of celebrity endorsements is changing, and high-profile celebrities are no longer out of reach for small companies, says Evan Morgenstein, chief executive of US-based firm Celeb Experts. Celebrity Endorsement refers to a marketing strategy whose purpose is to use one or multiple celebrities to advertise a specific product or service. *You can also browse our support articles here >. The nutrition information for products … O. ver the weekend, Neil Young publicly endorsed Bernie Sanders in the 2020 presidential race – adding his name to the long list of celebrities who have backed the Vermont Senator. Cookie information is stored in your browser and performs functions such as recognising you when you return to our website and helping our team to understand which sections of the website you find most interesting and useful. One determinant of the extent a consumer will evaluate a brand is the involvement the product entails; high involvement decisions means there is a need for extensive evaluation and information search (Hawkins et al, 1992). The complexity of consumer buying behaviour is coordinated with a complexity in assessing the effect of sports celebrity advertising on such behaviour, Celebrity Vs Non-Celebrity Endorsement 232. With offices situated in key international locations we provide an essential conduit between major talent and the important corporate market. Izzard campaigned in over fifty constituencies and was confronted by Scottish Nationalist Party (SNP) activists with the ‘Scot Lab’ leader Jim Murphy. Celebrity Endorsement Effect on Consumer Behaviour within the UK Fast Fashion Industry. In addition, Kamins (1990) argues that ‘reference groups provide points of comparison through which the consumer may evaluate attitudes and behaviour’. The third stage of the model illustrates the significance of the consumer’s role in the process of celebrity endorsed brands. Is the celebrity I have chosen the right celebrity? H e's a famous former footballer and long-term fashion icon, recognised and adored by fans around the world. However alternatively the consumer could re-evaluate sentiment toward the brand to make it negative and hold a negative attitude of the endorser; this would also ‘balance’ (Dean, 2002). When an organisation considers choosing a celebrity for their advertising campaign, they need to analyse the previous knowledge a celebrity has or how they will utilise their knowledge in the exposure stage. As a young tennis star, Capriati had a number of endorsement deals, including Oil of Olay, Diadora and racket maker Prince. Furthermore, when an organisation decides to use an endorsement strategy as their marketing communication method, one of the main focuses lies within exposing the brand (Kotler, Armstrong, Wong and Saunders, 2008). These figures demonstrate the prevalence of the celebrity appeal as a method of persuasive communication (Hsu and McDonald, 2002). Smaller names partnering with smaller companies might now make our eyes pop when we see the numbers. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Consumer Purchasing Process and Motivation. Atkin and Block (1983) consider that the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement is due to the fact consumers believe that the celebrity does ‘not really work for the endorsement fee, but are motivated by genuine affection for the product’. Celebrity Endorsement Marketing Dissertation. A balance theory explanation of endorsement suggests three elements linked in a triangular relationship: the endorser (celebrity), the product/brand and the consumer. 2.0 When and why celebrity’s endorsement an effective advertising strategy? Contrary to this, most of the brands in Asia that have used celebrity endorsements have used it as the main brand building tool. Copyright of all images and video used on this site are either owned by Useful Group or used with the permission of the copyright owners. It is unsurprising that organisations pursue branding strategies that incorporate reference group influences such as celebrities to create a specific brand image for the consumer. The author will present a general understanding of the topic, in the first chapter. All work is written to order. McCracken (1989) explains the effectiveness of celebrity spokespersons by assessing the meanings consumers associate with the endorser and eventually transfer to the brand. Literature Review Celebrity Endorsement and Celebrities McCracken (1989, p.310) offers a definition of the celebrity endorser which is popular in subsequent literature: “[the celebrity endorser] is any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this In the wake of sponsors cutting their ties with the disgraced fomer cycling champion Lance Armstrong amid doping allegations from US anti-doping chiefs, Marketing Week looks at the five celebrity endorsement deals brands might wish they had never signed. Celebrities project lifestyle messages that brands can tap into to position their products or services. Results have revealed that a number of celebrity endorsement have shown to be very successful whereas others have completely failed, this results in the ‘termination’ of the respective celebrity communicator (Walker, 1992). According to Belch and Belch (2009), the term source, when talking about the involvement in communicating a marketing message, can occur either be directly or indirectly. Few studies have compared the impact of celebrity advertising with non-celebrity advertising in determining their effectiveness on consumer behaviour. To carry out appropriate research methodology based on the review of literature that will establish whether celebrity endorsements are successful in motivating consumer purchasing behaviour. Our celebrity endorsement agreement is produced in general terms without specific reference to a particular industry, although it can be easily adapted to suit any product, whether physical or electronic. Schiffman and Kanuk (2004) believes that sports ‘celebrities can be a powerful force in creating interest or actions with regard to purchasing or using selected goods or services.’ However Foxall and Goldsmith (1998) believe that a celebrity endorsement does not create a strong pre-purchase attitude but can impact and cause change in the consumer’s perception process. The Fendi Zucca logo is more popular than ever before. For example, Heston Blumenthal’s eyewear range for Vision Express, although a costly campaign, helped to drive a 6% increase in sales in 2013 and an 11% rise in operating profits. Additionally advantages and disadvantages of each method will be justified. Trustworthiness: In comparison to expertise, a celebrity needs to be trustworthy when endorsing a product or service. The use of athlete endorsements provides an opportunity for companies to associate with attributes not found in other types of celebrities. Examples of celebrity endorsement in a sentence, how to use it. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this dissertation and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Firstly, celebrities are more efficient at attracting attention to an advertisement in the cluttered stream of messages in which consumers are inundated with advertising messages and secondly, celebrities are perceived as more entertaining and seen as trustworthy because of apparent lack of self-interest. Source Attributes and Receiver Processing Model (Belch and Belch, 2009). From the literature it has become evident that a spokesperson interacts with the type of brand being promoted. Additionally, a study done by Gardner and Schuman (1986) revealed that fifty-three percent of respondents reported that sponsorship (endorsements) increases the likelihood of brand purchase. Barack Obama, for example, went into his 2008 campaign with “a tremendous amount of celebrity support”, Jackson recalls, “and there’s evidence from the … Additionally, Belch and Belch (2009) argues that while expertise is important, the target audience must also find the source (celebrity) believable. This is based on how honest the celebrity is about what they say concerning the brand (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2009). We were delighted to have worked with you and Pollyanna Woodward & Ortis Deley on the THREE campaign, Thanks for arranging Pierluigi Collina to work with Mars Foods Ltd. on Snickers. The receiver accepts the persuasive influence of the source and acquiesces to their position in hope of obtaining a favourable reaction or avoiding punishment. According to Belch and Belch (2009) familiarity can be considered as the level of knowledge a celebrity possess of a brand. The ad created a public relations nightmare for Pepsi and for Jenner, who bore the brunt of the blame for her participation. Product Endorsement Specialists Since 1986. However the power source characteristic is very difficult to apply in a non-personal influence situation such as advertising. Therefore it is important that marketers carry out consumer research and analysis to be aware of important trends and evaluate these aspects. Celebrity Endorsement Effect on Consumer Behaviour within the UK Fast Fashion Industry. Thus, balance theory is useful in explaining attitude formation and attitude change. The Useful Group works in partnership with many representatives of Talent not represented by ourselves and we are grateful for their permission to reproduce images, videos and biographies on this website. This chapter will interpret and evaluate the findings from primary research conducted in conjunction with academic literature. An investigation conducted by Friedman et al (1977) that used advertisements with celebrities and non-celebrities for a fictitious brand of sangria. As a result ‘below-the-line’ promotions have established themselves as a major element of the marketing mix, with advertising traditionally being the dominant communication tool for organisations (Lanman, 2003). Whenever there is a debate on celebrity endorsement, non-celebrity endorsements are also mentioned because of their advantages i.e. Examples of celebrity endorsement in a sentence, how to use it. This chapter seeks to explore the most crucial attributes that is mostly associated with celebrity endorsement strategy. Celebrity Adverts Effectiveness in Relation to Consumer Behaviour 430. It was widely reported recently that Katie Perry has overtaken Justin Bieber in the race for the largest international base of Twitter followers. So the celebrity endorsement is the use of celebrities with an objective to increase the sales/value of a brand. Whereas Schiffman and Kanuk (2009) claim that customer satisfaction depends on the product or service matching consumer expectations. You can find out more about which cookies we are using or switch them off in settings. Strictly Necessary Cookie should be enabled at all times so that we can save your preferences for cookie settings. Although the number of advertising featuring celebrities has increased and it seems inevitable that it will in the future, there is still a question of whether celebrity endorsement has an impact on consumers’ behaviour. Any specific endorsement or activity used herein for illustrative purposes to position their products or services in... 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