Part 1 of 3 – Theories on Origin of the Earth. Primitive Earth. 2. “Perhaps the moon formed earlier than we thought, or by a different process,” says geologist, John Valley. While religions have relied on creation stories to explain how life on Earth began, scientists have tried to hypothesize possible ways that inorganic molecules (the building blocks of life) joined together to form living cells.There are several hypotheses about how life started on Earth that are still being studied today. Some matter still remained in the disc after the formation of the planets. In fact, many scientists have dedicated their entire lives to finding out how life came to be on Earth. No one can change the mass of the rotating body, that is why it is constant. ... How to help re-write human history; What is the Human Origin Project? There are various scientific theories of origin and evolution of the earth. The most widely accepted theory of planetary formation, known as the nebular hypothesis, maintains that 4.6 billion years ago, the Solar System formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant molecular cloud which was light years across. It may be pointed out that the hypothesis based on dualistic concept failed to explain the high amount of angular momentum of the planets of present solar system, high atomic weight of the constituent elements of the planets of inner circle and lighter atomic weight of the planets of outer circle of the solar system and the distances of different planets from the sun. According to this hypothesis, the planets were moulded out of a cloud of material associated with a young Sun, which was rotating slowly. The most prominent scientific theory about the origin of the Earth involves a spinning cloud of dust called a solar nebula. Though there is no common consensus among the scientists about the origin of our solar system but it can be safely argued that all planets of our solar system are believed to have been formed by the same process. The Human Origin Project. (2) What was the reason behind the formation of certain fixed number of planets from the irregular ring? 4:08 Nebular Theory – Laplace. This statement is erroneous as it is against the law of conservation of angular momentum. As per these theories, the sun had a companion. French scientist Roche suggested modification in the nebular hypothesis of Laplace during mid-19th century. Content Filtration 6. Early Theories. Large star came near the sun. Thus, the initial primordial matter gradually changed in hot rotating nebula. There are two fundamental theories regarding the formation of the solar system, Nebular Hypothesis or Gas Collapse and the Accretion Disk Model. (3) The collision among the particles of the primordial matter can never generate rotatory motion in it. Later on planets were formed from the ejected matter. German philosopher, Kant and French mathematician, Laplace; Earth, planets and sun originated from Nebula. According to this hypothesis, the planets were moulded out of a cloud of material associated with a young Sun, which was rotating slowly. According to Kant with the increase in temperature, the random motion as well as the rate of collision among the particles also increased. This is called chemical evolution which cannot occur under present environmental conditions upon earth. According to the ‘interstellar dust hypothesis’ our sun during its ‘galactic revolution’ captured the dark matter of the universe. Theories about the creation of the earth include the theory of special creation, organic evolution and materialistic theory. Laplace’s nebular hypothesis was in some way similar to the gaseous hypothesis of Kant. It may be pointed out that flat disc of captured dark matter started revolving around the sun under the combined impacts of three types of motions e.g. The ejected matter started revolving in the direction of the giant approaching star and thus opposite to the direction of revolution of companion star. 0:26 Gaseous Mass Theory – Kant. Inside you'll learn just how mysterious this all is, as we reveal the different scientific theories on the origins of life on Earth. AstronomyAstronomy is a natural science that study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth… All the materials of each ring condensed at a point or knot in the form of ‘hot gaseous agglomeration’. Stay informed - subscribe to our newsletter. Nemesis is a theoretical dwarf star thought to be a companion to our sun. E.g. Thus, the particles having larger amount of centrifugal force were thrown out towards the margins of the rotating disc of dark matter around the sun while the particles having small amount of centrifugal force were attracted towards the band of the disc nearer to the sun. (iii) The problem of heavier elements of the material of the planets than the sun. SIGN UP LEARN. The disturbance could be, for example, the shock wave from a nearby supernova. ... Walter Cruttended on Precession,Binary Star and Yuga Cycles. He elaborated his concepts about the origin of the solar system and the earth in his book entitled ‘Exposition of the World System’. The angular momentum could not be produced by the passing star. The irregularity of the rings caused the development of the cores (knots) for the formation of the corresponding planets. Discuss the different theories like the early theory (nuclear hypothesis by Kant), binary theory, revised nebular hypothesis, big bang theory. This nebula is a product of the Big Bang. His hypothesis was based on the principles of ‘nuclear physics’ and was described in his essay entitled ‘Nature of the Universe’. Consequently, the outer layer was condensed due to excessive cooling and so it could not rotate with the still cooling and contracting central nucleus of the nebula and thus the outer ring (layer) was separated from the remaining part of the nebula. Thoeries of the Origin of Solar System 1. Thus, reduction in the size and volume of the nebula increased the circular velocity (rotatory motion) of the nebula. He opined that nine rings were separated from the nebula itself and these rings were condensed to form nine planets. He did not offer any explanation. Send My Free Book . zImportant point: The Earth has evolved (changed) throughout its history, and will continue to … Kant postulated his gaseous hypothesis of the origin of the earth on the basis of a few assumptions. Scientific Theories of the Origin of the Earth. Mercury ∞ Venus o, Earth 1, Mars 2 etc. It was believed that the distance between two stars might have been about 48,00,000 to 64,00,000 km. Gaseous Tidal Theory . October 30 . (iii) Binary star concept or trihybrid concept (involving more than two heavenly bodies). It may be pointed out that Laplace propounded his hypothesis without mathematical formulation. The intense heat also formed heavy particles which remained in the inner bands of the disc. When this stage was reached the materials at the equator of the nebula became weightless. The stars generally contain hydrogen. Thus, the original cold and motionless cloud of matter became in due course a vast hot nebula and started spinning (rotating) around its axis. Let us understand angular momentum. This was the reason that cold matter was initially motionless (according to the molecular theory of matter). The dark matter of gaseous cloud and dust particles had their own angular momentum. While special creation believes in the existence of a supreme being who created the earth, organic evolution and materialistic theory believe in the progression of organisms from one state to another. All the views and concepts pertaining to the origin of the earth may be divided into two groups e.g. The explosion of the supernova (companion star) generated intense heat and pressure which formed heavy elements of which our primitive earth was made. It broke into pieces-forming nine planets of the solar system. H.N. Revised Nebular Hypothesis Panspermia. Start your journey today. Nebula was large cloud of gas and dust. Fission Theory: At the most basic level Fission Theory states that very early in Earth history the Earth was spinning many times faster than it does today. Why did only 9 rings come out from the irregular ring detached from the nebula? Assumptions 1. Nebula – It is a primordial (primitive) amorphous (without shape) mass of cloud of gas and dust. The dark matter after being attracted by the sun during its ‘galactic revolution’ started revolving around the primitive rotating sun. Thus, he solved the problem of heat of the nebula through this assumption. Kant claimed that his ‘gaseous hypothesis’ of the origin of the earth was based on the sound principles of Newton’s laws of gravitation and rotatory motion. According to Hoyle initially there were two stars in the universe viz. Origin of the Universe - The Big Bang Theory An astonishing observation was made in the late 1920's. Immanuel Kant, the German philosopher, presented his treatise entitled ‘The General Natural History and Theory of the Heaven or the Essay on the Working and Mechanical Origin of the Entire Universe on the Basis of Newtonian Laws’ in 1755. In the beginning the planets might have been nearer to each other and thus matter might have been ejected from these planets due to their mutual attraction and thus satellites might have been ejected from these planets due to their mutual attraction and thus satellites might have been formed from these matter. It may be pointed out that energy, which is emitted by any star in the form of light, heat, etc., is generated by the process known as ‘nuclear fusion’ wherein atoms of lighter elements combine under intense heat and pressure to form atoms of heavier elements, releasing vast amount of energy. By the repetition of the same process a system of concentric rings (nine) were separated from the nebula. Disclaimer 8. Origin of Earth By- S M Zaki Ahmad. Where D is the distance of planets from the sun in astronomical unit and n is a coefficient, the value of which for each planet is constant e.g. This mutual attraction and collision between the particles generated random motion in the primordial matter. With the passage of time these embryos captured more and more matter and thus grew in size to become asteroids. Content Guidelines 2. : Since the religious concepts do not have any logical and scientific basis, these are discarded by modern scientific community. Thus, under the combined impact of these three types of motions each and every particle of dark matter of the universe started redistributing itself on the basis of mass, density, dimension and the existing amount of centrifugal force (generated due to the revolution of matter around the sun) tending to push the particles away from the sun and the centripetal force (generated due to gravitational pull of the sun) tending to push the particles towards the sun. Satellites were formed from the planets due to repetition of the aforesaid processes and mechanism. The hydrogen nuclei slowly and slowly combine with each other to form helium. Thus, the nebula started spinning at very fast speed and consequently the centrifugal force became so great that it exceeded the centripetal force. ... centrifugal force of a rapidly spinning early Earth. It rotates slowly. Collision among the dust particles started the process of aggregation and accretion around the bigger particles which became the embryos of the future planets but the gas particles could not condense as they could not be organized due to their continued motion. In the beginning the ‘companion star’ was revolving around the primitive sun. The planets of the outer bands of the disc were of low density because they were formed by the ‘freezing out’ process of the gaseous matter, The redistribution of matter and ‘averaging of the dynamic characteristics’ of the disc resulted in the placement of the planets according to well-known Titius-Bode law of planetary distances (equation 2.5). Various scientists and philosophers have propounded from time to time their concepts, hypotheses and theories to unravel the mystery and to solve the riddle of the problems of the origin and evolution of our solar system in general and of the earth in particular but none of these could be accepted by majority of the scientific community. He assumed that supernaturally created primordial hard matter was scattered in the universe. According to dynamical theory the ring may break up into several parts and thus several planets may be formed due to condensation of small parts. As the giant approaching star came nearer to the companion star, the gravitational and tidal force continued to increase and hence the bulge on the outer surface of the companion star started growing towards the giant approaching star. Solve this simple math problem and enter the result. Binary Star Hypothesis – Russell Propounded in 1937. Gaseous tide detached when star move away. Kant postulated his gaseous hypothesis of the origin of the earth on the basis of a few assumptions. Nebula was large cloud of gas and dust. The intense heat and nuclear fusion became responsible for the formation of heavy elements (e.g., helium, carbon, oxygen, silicon, nitrogen, etc.). The ‘supernova hypothesis’ of F.Hoyle helps us in solving 3 basic problems of the origin of the earth and the solar system raised by the critics since the time of the postulation of ‘tidal hypothesis’ of James Jeans viz. 16:04 Tidal Theory – Filament form would break down and form planets. Another theory, called binary accretion, assumes that the … In order to remove the aforesaid defects Laplace assumed certain axioms for the postulation of his nebular hypothesis to solve the riddle of the origin of the earth: (1) He assumed that there was a huge and hot gaseous nebula in the space. : (i) Monistic concept (involving only one heavenly body, (ii) Dualistic concept (involving two heavenly bodies) and. A. I. Oparin (1894-1980) was a Russian Scientist. Thus, the above equation can also be expressed in the following manner Angular velocity α 1/radius (or size). Although it is the most studied planet, it cannot be completely understood in isolation. The second equation shows that there is an inverse relation between angular velocity or the speed of rotatory motion and the radius or the size of the rotatory body. Wild New Theory on Lunar History. Most experts agree that all life today evolved by common descent from a single primitive lifeform. The light from distant galaxies is shifted to lower frequencies (red shift) similiar to the way the sound of a horn on a passing train or car shifts to a lower pitch. It is quite unreasonable to imagine the situation that all matter of one ring could condense into one incandescent gaseous mass to form one planet. It is not known how this early life form evolved, but scientists think it was a natural process which happened about 3,900 million years ago. Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher gave this theory. Thus, nine planets were formed from nine rings and the remaining central nucleus of the nebula became the sun. Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher, gave this theory. The chemistry of meteorites and Sun provide constraints on the composition of the bulk of the Earth. The solar nebula theory (also known as the planetesimal hypothesis, or condensation theory ) describes the solar system as the natural result of the operation of the various laws of physics. Thus, the matter of this disc became building material for the formation of future planets. In fact, Kant’s hypothesis paved the way for the postulation of nebular hypothesis by Laplace. Planets were believed to be formed out of a cloud like material associated with Sun. He could not explain the formation of fixed number of planets (9). This separated ring of material started moving around the nebula. Conditions suitable for origin of life existed only upon primitive earth. Nebula (Slowly rotating cloud of gas) and the matter was comprised of very cold, solid, and motionless particles. Russell, an American astronomer, propounded his ‘binary star hypothesis’ in the year 1937 to remove the shortcomings of tidal hypothesis of Sir James Jeans. the Earth's surface, but the study of the ocean floors, and the interior of the Earth. The origin of life on Earth is a highly curious thing. Due to gravitational pull a gaseous tide was raised on the surface of the sun. 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