The main tourist destinations in Catalonia are the city of Barcelona, the beaches of the Costa Brava in Girona, the beaches of the Costa del Maresme and Costa del Garraf from Malgrat de Mar to Vilanova i la Geltrú and the Costa Daurada in Tarragona. , On 14 October 2019, the Spanish Supreme court sentenced several Catalan political leaders involved in organizing a referendum on Catalonia's independence from Spain were convicted on charges ranging from sedition to misuse of public funds, with sentences ranging from 9 to 13 years in prison. Category:Counts of Catalonia | Familypedia | Fandom. In Catalonia and the territories of the counts of Barcelona, art flowered in the early Middle Ages and continued to flourish through the Renaissance. Yesterday … In 987 the count of … It has five channels: TV3, El 33, Super3, 3/24, Esport3 and TV3CAT. The main sports are football, basketball, handball, rink hockey, tennis and motorsport. Sport has a distinct importance in Catalan life and culture since the beginning of the 20th century and consequently, has a well developed sport infrastructure. After the fall of the dictator and a brief proclamation of the Catalan Republic during the events which led to the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic (1931-1939), it received its first Statute of Autonomy from the Spanish Republic's Parliament, establishing an autonomous body, the Generalitat of Catalonia, which included a parliament, a government and a court of appeal, and the left-wing independentist leader Francesc Macià was elected its first president. It held annually the fourth-oldest still-existing cycling stage race in the world, the Volta a Catalunya (Tour of Catalonia). Other important artists are Claudi Lorenzale for the medieval Romanticism that marked the artistic Renaixença, Marià Fortuny for the Romanticism and Catalan Orientalism of the nineteenth century, Ramon Casas or Santiago Rusiñol, main representatives of the pictorial current of Catalan modernism from the end of the nineteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth century, Josep Maria Sert for early 20th-century Noucentisme, or Josep Maria Subirachs for expressionist or abstract sculpture and painting of the late twentieth century. Heritage on the map Apply. Many Catalans consider seny something unique to their culture, is based on a set of ancestral local customs stemming from the scale of values and social norms of their society. ", "What happened with Catalonia's vote for independence -- and what's next", "Recurso de inconstitucionalidad n.º 4334-2017, contra la Ley del Parlamento de Cataluña 19/2017, de 6 de septiembre, del Referéndum de Autodeterminación", "Catalan Separatists Plot Show of Force in Battle With Madrid", "Protests in Barcelona against suspension of Catalan autonomy – in pictures", "Catalans declare independence from Spain", "Spain dissolves Catalan parliament and calls fresh elections", "DIRECTO: El Senado aprueba la aplicación del 155", "En vivo - Rajoy disuelve el Parlament y convoca elecciones catalanas el 21 de diciembre", "Rajoy cesa a Puigdemont y su Govern y convoca elecciones para el 21 de diciembre", "Catalonia Independence: nine former ministers jailed", "Quim Torra pren possessió com a 131è president de la Generalitat", "Spanish judge jails proposed Catalan leader hours ahead of planned inauguration", "UNPO: UNPO Welcomes the Assemblea Nacional Catalana as its Newest Member", "Spanish Supreme Court sentences Catalan separatists to prison, sparking protests", The Cetaceans of the Spanish Coasts: A Survey, "Beginnings of the autonomous regime, 1918–1932", "The republican Government of Catalonia, 1931–1939", "Title IV. Tarrus, Josep. The Catalan capital and largest city, Barcelona, is a major international cultural centre and a major tourist destination. They follow the coast from the French border to Valencia, Murcia and Andalusia.  Some of the most important prehistoric remains were found in the caves of Mollet … Upload media: Instance of: position, noble title: Subclass of: head of state, count: Location: Crown of Aragon : Applies to jurisdiction: County of Barcelona: Authority control Q38673587. The 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia establishes the administrative organisation of three local authorities: vegueries, comarques, and municipalities. The Catalan Coastal mountain ranges or the Catalan Mediterranean System: an alternating delevacions and planes parallel to the Mediterranean coast; This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 00:26. Romanticism and Industrialization. Between 1347 and 1497 Catalonia lost 37 percent of its population. Memory and Avant-garde. The oldest known trace of human occupation is a mandible found in Banyoles, described by some sources as pre-Neanderthal some 200,000 years old; other sources suggest it to be only about one third that old. Catalonia and the Catalan people are defined as a. Other less plausible or recent theories suggest: In English, Catalonia is pronounced /kætəˈloʊniə/. In 2010, the Court declared non-valid some of the articles that established an autonomous Catalan system of Justice, improved aspects of the financing, a new territorial division, the status of Catalan language or the symbolical declaration of Catalonia as a nation.  Other polls have shown lower support for independence, ranging from 40 to 49%. Share it! Charles II had chosen Philip V of Spain from the French House of Bourbon. The log is sometimes "found in the woods" (in an event staged for children) and then adopted and taken home, where it is fed and cared for during a month or so. In 2018, TV3 became the first television channel to be the most viewed one for nine consecutive years in Catalonia. According to the most recent study sponsored by the government of Catalonia, as of 2016, 61.9% of the Catalans identify as Christians, up from 56.5% in 2014, of whom 58.0% Catholics, 3.0% Protestants and Evangelicals, 0.9% Orthodox Christians and 0.6% Jehovah's Witnesses. After a period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. In 718, the … Comarques have no particular relation to the "counties" that were ruled by counts. The law ensures that both Catalan and Spanish – being official languages – can be used by the citizens without prejudice in all public and private activities,. It was a rich agricultural province (olive oil, vine, wheat), and the first centuries of the Empire saw the construction of roads (the most important being the Via Augusta, parallel to Mediterranean coastline) and infrastructure like aqueducts. The last ones were promulgated by the Corts of 1705. Facebook Twitter Pinterest. Any 2010", "Ley 16/1990, de 13 de julio, sobre el régimen especial del Valle de Arán", Aprovació del Pla territorial parcial de l'Alt Pirineu i Aran, "El Parlament reconeix l'àmbit funcional del Penedès", "Comparar Comunidades Autónomas Madrid vs Cataluña 2020", "Catalunya mantiene el papel de locomotora de España en el 2018", "S&P mantiene la deuda de Cataluña en "bono basura, "Standard & Poor's degrada la calificación de Catalunya a 'bono basura, "Rating: Calificación de la deuda de las Comunidades Autónomas", "Barcelona, la octava mejor ciudad del mundo para vivir y trabajar", "BBVA no descarta que la economía catalana caiga un 2% • ELPAÍS.com". Catalan gastronomy has a long culinary tradition. Search terms . In the 10th century, the Counts of Barcelona became progressively independent, hereditary rulers in constant warfare with the Islamic Caliphate of Córdoba and its successor states. Elevation ranges from 200 to 600 metres (660 to 1,970 feet). Search terms . Under the Compromise of Caspe, Ferdinand from the Castilian House of Trastámara received the Crown of Aragon as Ferdinand I of Aragon. Catalonia is amongst the List of country subdivisions by GDP over 100 billion US dollars and is a member of the Four Motors for Europe organisation.  The first private bank in Catalonia, Banc Sabadell, ranked fourth among all Spanish private banks, also moved its headquarters to Alicante, in the Valencian Community. Present. The biggest football clubs are FC Barcelona (also known as Barça), who have won five European Cups (UEFA Champions League), and RCD Espanyol, who have twice been runner-up of the UEFA Cup. In hundreds of non-binding local referendums on independence, organised across Catalonia from 13 September 2009, a large majority voted for independence, although critics argued that the polls were mostly held in pro-independence areas. , The Catalan Statute of Autonomy establishes that Catalonia is organised politically through the Generalitat of Catalonia (in Catalan: Generalitat de Catalunya), conformed by the Parliament, the Presidency of the Generalitat, the Government or Executive Council and the other institutions created by the Parliament, among them the Ombudsman (Síndic de Greuges), the Office of Auditors (Sindicatura de Comptes) or the Council for Statutory Guarantees (Consell de Garanties Estatutàries). The rejection to French dominion was institutionalized with the creation of "juntas" (councils) who, remaining loyal to the Bourbons, exercised the sovereignty and representation of the territory due to the disappearance of the old institutions. Location. The use of fines was introduced in a 1997 linguistic law that aims to increase the public use of Catalan and defend the rights of Catalan speakers. The same constitution gave Catalonia the automatic right to autonomy, which resulted in the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 1979. Powers (articles 110–173) of the 2006 Statute", "Centrifugal Spain: Umbrage in Catalonia", "CEO Public Opinion Poll covering, among others, nationalist opinions", "Diagnóstic de Percepcions Catalunya - Espanya", "El 42% de los catalanes dice que quiere que Cataluña sea independiente", "El apoyo a la independencia remite y cae al 40%", "MAPA - ¿Cómo se distribuye el voto independentista en Catalunya? Renaissance. Baroque and Counter Reformation. The wealth of the four counties that its ruler, Count-Marquis Borrell II (945–93), controlled had been growing throughout his … There's a National Park, Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici; fourteen Natural Parks, Alt Pirineu, Aiguamolls de l'Empordà, Cadí-Moixeró, Cap de Creus, Sources of Ter and Freser, Collserola, Ebro Delta, Ports, Montgrí, Medes Islands and Baix Ter, Montseny, Montserrat, Sant Llorenç del Munt and l'Obac, Serra de Montsant and the Garrotxa Volcanic Zone; as well as three Natural Places of National Interest (Paratge Natural d'Interes Nacional or PNIN), the Pedraforca, the Poblet Forest and the Albères. Another major plain is the Empordà, located in the northeast. After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language.  Other polls show more variable results, according with the Spanish CIS, as of December 2016, 47% of Catalans rejected independence and 45% supported it..  Catalan Sign Language is also officially recognised. The defeat of the Republican army in the Battle of the Ebro led in 1938 and 1939 to the occupation of Catalonia by Franco's forces. , The Preamble of the 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia states that the Parliament of Catalonia has defined Catalonia as a nation, but that "the Spanish Constitution recognizes Catalonia's national reality as a nationality". Tensions between Catalan institutions and the Monarchy began to arise. The Coastal Lowland is located to the East of the Coastal Range between it and the coast, while the Pre-Coastal Lowlands are located inland, between the Costal and Pre-Costal Ranges, and includes the Vallès and Penedès plains.  This treaty confirmed, from French point of view, the independence of the Catalan counties established and exercised during the previous three centuries, but also meant the irremediable separation between the geographical areas of Catalonia and Languedoc.  On 14 July 2010 the Catalan Parliament approved the creation of the functional area of the Penedès.. ), Catalonia nevertheless preserved its own laws, cortes (or corts), and language (akin to Provençal). The Catalan Football Federation also periodically fields a national team against international opposition, organizing friendly matches. The current collection of the Museu Diocesà d'Urgell (Diocesan Museum of Urgell) is a reference point of sacred art in which the, Els museus de Tarragona i les Terres de l'Ebre, Giravolt. Catalan art Catalan art. (1911). First, auteur cinema, in the continuity of the Barcelona School, emphasizes experimentation and form, while focusing on developing social and political themes. Catalan painters internationally known are, among others, Salvador Dalí, Joan Miró and Antoni Tàpies. Citizens, currently the main opposition party, has been one of the most consistent critics of the Catalan language policy within Catalonia. 217 Currency Change in Pre-millennial Catalonia: Coinage, Counts and Economics JONATHAN JARRETT BARCELONA in the late tenth century was on the verge of becoming a commercial as well as a political capital.  In 1137, Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon. The Chalcolithic period developed in Catalonia between 2500 and 1800 BC, with the beginning of the construction of copper objects. Catalan and Occitan (Aranese in Aran) are the own languages of Catalonia and Aran (respectively) and official languages of the autonomous community of Catalonia according with its Statue of Autonomy. It is bordered by France (Occitanie) and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. It is elected every four years by universal suffrage, and it has powers to legislate in different matters such as education, health, culture, internal institutional and territorial organization, election and control of the president of the Generalitat and the Government, budget and other affairs, according with the Statute of Autonomy.  Today, the public Catalunya Ràdio (owned by Catalan Media Corporation) and the private RAC 1 (belonging to Grup Godó) are the two main radios of Catalonia, both in Catalan. The Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned seven former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others—including then-President, Carles Puigdemont—fled to other European countries. If you look high up on the corner turning towards the sea, you will be able to glimpse a person fighting a drag… The second moment of splendor began in the 19th century with the cultural and political Renaixença (Renaissance) represented by writers and poets such as Jacint Verdaguer, Víctor Català (pseudonym of Caterina Albert i Paradís), Narcís Oller, Joan Maragall and Àngel Guimerà. In main celebrations, other elements of the Catalan popular culture are also usually present: parades with gegants (giants), bigheads, stick-dancers and musicians, and the correfoc, where devils and monsters dance and spray showers of sparks using firecrackers. Laws had to be approved in the General Court of Catalonia, one of the first parliamentary bodies of Europe that banned the royal power to create legislation unilaterally (since 1283). In pre-Roman times, the area that is now called Catalonia in the north-east of Iberian Peninsula – like the rest of the Mediterranean side of the peninsula – was populated by the Iberians. The Iberians of this area – the Ilergetes, Indigetes and Lacetani (Cerretains) – also maintained relations with the peoples of the Mediterranean. facebook twitter youtube instagram pinterest. Heritage on the map Apply. In everyday use, 11.95% of the population claim to use both languages equally, whereas 45.92% mainly use Spanish and 35.54% mainly use Catalan. The Val d'Aran (Aran Valley), until 2015 considered as a comarca, is officially defined today as "unique territorial entity", has a special status and its autonomous government is named Conselh Generau d'Aran.. Navarre, the Basque Country and Catalonia are the Spanish communities with the highest degree of autonomy in terms of law enforcement. It is sixth largest cruise port in the world, the first in Europe and the Mediterranean with 2,364,292 passengers in 2014. The avant-garde spirit initiated by the modernists is prolonged throughout the twentieth century, thanks to the activities of the Orfeó Català, a choral society founded in 1891, with its monumental concert hall, the Palau de la Música Catalana in Catalan, built by Lluís Domènech i Montaner from 1905 to 1908, the Barcelona Symphony Orchestra created in 1944 and composers, conductors and musicians engaged against the Francoism like Robert Gerhard, Eduard Toldrà and Pau Casals. The port of Palamós and the other ports in Catalonia (26) are operated and administered by Ports de la Generalitat [ca], a Catalan Government entity. In the later Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished.  That year, the GDP growth was 2.3%. Ramon Berenguer I Comte de … Register Familypedia .  Violent confrontations between the workers' parties (CNT-FAI and POUM against the PSUC) culminated in the defeat of the first ones in 1937. Romanticism and Industrialization. Since 1980 they have been under the command of the Generalitat, and since 1994 they have expanded in number in order to replace the national Civil Guard and National Police Corps, which report directly to the Homeland Department of Spain. The Counts of Catalonia. On the next day, the children find the gifts the three kings brought for them. Rural–urban migration originating in other parts of Spain also reduced the social use of Catalan in urban areas and increased the use of Spanish. , Catalonia is internationally recognized for its fine dining. The populated areas lying by the coast in Tarragona, Barcelona and Girona provinces feature a Hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa). Another custom is to make a pessebre (nativity scene) in the home or in shop windows, the latter sometimes competing in originality or shear size and detail. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Demographic Survey. The Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the Catalan government and calling a snap regional election.  The Catalan government gave in and dropped the clause that forced 50% of the movies to be dubbed or subtitled in Catalan before the law came to effect. Franco's regime banned the use of Catalan in government-run institutions and during public events, and also the Catalan institutions of self-government were abolished. Heritage on the map Apply .  From the next prehistoric era, the Epipalaeolithic or Mesolithic, important remains survive, the greater part dated between 8000 and 5000 BC, such as those of Sant Gregori (Falset) and el Filador (Margalef de Montsant).  In 2017, Catalonia had 1,194,497 foreign residents (15.9% of the total population) with non-Spanish ID cards, without including those who acquired the Spanish citizenship. Later, horror films and thrillers have also emerged as a specialty of the Catalan film industry, thanks in particular to the vitality of the Sitges Film Festival, created in 1968. They often give the kings letters with their gift requests, which are collected by the pages. The expansion was accompanied by a great development of the Catalan trade, creating an extensive trade network across the Mediterranean which competed with those of the maritime republics of Genoa and Venice. The official opening between Barcelona and Madrid took place 20 February 2008. Coastal trading colonies were established by the ancient Greeks, who settled around the Gulf of Roses, in Emporion (Empúries) and Roses in the 8th century BC. Por país de nacionalidad", "Catalans woo immigrants in quest to split from Spain", "Idescat. The most important sites from these eras, all excavated in the region of Moianès, are the Balma del Gai (Epipaleolithic) and the Balma de l'Espluga (late Epipaleolithic and Early Neolithic). Thus, in 1990, the Catalan government created the Nature Conservation Council (Catalan: Consell de Protecció de la Natura), an advisory body with the aim to study, protect and manage the natural environments and landscapes of Catalonia. ", "Catalonia can call itself a 'nation', rules Spain's top court 29 Jun 2010", "A nationality, not a nation Jul 1st 2010", "Padró municipal d'habitants. The name of Catalonia comes from “land of castles” and began to be used in the middle of XIIth century to designate the set of counties that formed the Hispanic Marca. Catalunya", "Diario Periodista Digital, Spanish Only", p. 13: Catalan Deputy of Education Ernest Maragall declares respect from the Catalan Government to Spanish language and to everyone's rights, "Catalan, Basque and Galician get EU language boost", "High Level Group on Multilingualism – Final Report: from the Commission of the European Communities in which Catalan immersion is taken as an example which "should be disseminated throughout the Union" (p. 18)", "Second article of Catalonia's linguistic law", "Ninth article of Catalonia's Linguistic Law", "DESCOBRIR LES LLENGÜES DE LA IMMIGRACIÓ", "Árabe y urdu aparecen entre las lenguas habituales de Catalunya, creando peligro de guetos", "El Blog de Antonio Sabadell - Blog Personal", "Cinema law: rude case to not dub and subtitle all films in Catalan", "La nova llei del cinema elimina les quotes de doblatge en català", "La Plataforma per la Llengua denuncia en un informe 40 casos greus de discriminació lingüística a les administracions públiques ocorreguts els darrers anys", "Alicia Sánchez-Camacho responde en 'Tengo una pregunta para usted, "El PPC va votar a favor d´un reglament sobre el català - Regió7. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Noucentisme. Although Hispania remained under Roman rule and did not fall under the rule of Vandals, Swabians and Alans in the 5th century, the main cities suffered frequent sacking and some deurbanization. The County of Barcelona suffered incursions of Islam in … The pro-Republic of Spain president of Catalonia, Lluís Companys, was taken to Spain from his exile in the German-occupied France, and was tortured and executed in the Montjuïc Castle of Barcelona for the crime of 'military rebellion'. In these elections, Convergència and Esquerra Republicana decided to join, and they presented themselves under the coalition named "Junts pel Sí" (in Catalan, "Together for Yes"). The first slope provides an average of 18,700 cubic hectometres (4.5 cubic miles) per year, while the second only provides an average of 2,020 hm3 (0.48 cu mi)/year.  In the Pyrenees there are many small lakes, remnants of the ice age.  It was declared illegal and suspended by the Constitutional Court of Spain, because it breached the 1978 Constitution. Just over 30,000 square kilometres (12,000 square miles) hosting a variety of substrates, soils, climates, directions, altitudes and distances to the sea. The Sarmatians: 600 BC-AD 450 (Men-at-Arms) by Richard Brzezinski and Gerry Embleton, 19 August 2002.  The sizeable increase of the population was due to the demographic boom in Spain during the 60s and early 70s as well as in consequence of large-scale internal migration from the rural economically weak regions to its more prospering industrial cities. The principal highways are AP-7 (Autopista de la Mediterrània) and A-7 (Autovia de la Mediterrània). Both play in La Liga. The fauna of Catalonia comprises a minority of animals endemic to the region and a majority of non-native animals. The majority of Catalan population is concentrated in 30% of the territory, mainly in the coastal plains. The Serra del Cadí comprises the highest peaks in the Pre-Pyrenees and forms the southern boundary of the Cerdanya valley. Televisió de Catalunya, which broadcasts entirely in the Catalan language, is the main Catalan public TV. This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. , Historically, all the Catalan population was Christian, specifically Catholic, but since the 1980s there has been a trend of decline of Christianity and parallel growth of irreligion (including stances of atheism and agnosticism) and other religions.  Although it is established in the whole of the territory, support for independence is significantly higher in the hinterland and the northeast, away from the more populated coastal areas such as Barcelona. Detailed information about the coin Louis d'or, Louis XIII (Count of Catalonia), France, with pictures and collection and swap management : mintage, descriptions, metal, weight, size, value and other numismatic data  In all, some analysts argue that formally the current system grants Catalonia with "more self-government than almost any other corner in Europe". Motorsport has a long tradition in Catalonia, which involving many people, with some world champions and several competitions organized since the beginning of the 20th century. Add new page. On 11 September 2012, a pro-independence march pulled in a crowd of between 600,000 (according to the Spanish Government), 1.5 million (according to the Guàrdia Urbana de Barcelona), and 2 million (according to its promoters); whereas poll results revealed that half the population of Catalonia supported secession from Spain. The caganer is so popular it has, together with the tió, long been a major part of the Christmas markets, where they come in the guise of your favorite politicians or other famous people, as well as the traditional figures of a Catalan farmer. Napoleon took direct control of Catalonia to establish order, creating the Government of Catalonia under the rule of Marshall Augereau, and making Catalan briefly an official language again. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the institutions of Catalan autonomy continued to develop, among them an autonomous police force (Mossos d'Esquadra, in 1983), and the broadcasting network Televisió de Catalunya and its first channel TV3, created in 1983. In the field of architecture were developed and adapted to Catalonia different artistic styles prevalent in Europe, leaving footprints in many churches, monasteries and cathedrals, of Romanesque (the best examples of which are located in the northern half of the territory) and Gothic styles. Mapa. The ban, which went into effect on 1 January 2012, had originated in a popular petition supported by over 180,000 signatures.. Some books were published clandestinely or circumvented the restrictions by showing publishing dates prior to 1936. , According to the linguistic census held by the Government of Catalonia in 2013, Spanish is the most spoken language in Catalonia (46.53% claim Spanish as "their own language"), followed by Catalan (37.26% claim Catalan as "their own language"). The territorial plan of Catalonia (Pla territorial general de Catalunya) provided six general functional areas, but was amended by Law 24/2001, of 31 December, recognizing the Alt Pirineu i Aran as a new functional area differentiated of Ponent. Noucentisme. The plains and the water that descend from the Pyrenees have made it fertile territory for agriculture and numerous irrigation canals have been built. Flags are a constant point of contention between Catalonia’s number one football club and Spanish sports authorities. In the High Pyrenees there are several ski resorts, near Lleida. Catalonia was first settled during the Middle Palaeolithic era. The Corts in Catalan have the same origin as courts in English but instead meaning the legislature. From the 2017 independence referendum until the end of 2018, for example, Catalonia 5454 companies they transferred their Social headquarters In other cities in the rest of Spain, such as Valencia, Alicante, Madrid and Mallorca. Through the Renaissance there were authors such as Pere Albert Vila, Joan Brudieu or the two Mateu Fletxa ("The Old" and "The Young"). 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