The Council of Europe Convention against Trafficking in Human Organs was adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 9 July 2014. According to Professor Jacques Belghiti, transplant surgeon at Beaujon University Hospital, no scientific feedback has been published concerning the results of transplants from forced organ harvesting. The China Tribunal analyzed a wide variety of evidence and determined that forced organ harvesting has taken place in China for about 20 years. Additionally, some instances of human trafficking may fall under immigration or labor laws. The government reported convicting 19 trafficking offenders under its anti-trafficking statute in 2008, the most recent year for which data was available, compared with 33 convicted trafficking offenders in 200… This complicity could be: the training of Chinese surgeons, university and scientific exchanges, publications, the care of patients who had transplants abroad by prescribing anti-rejection drugs for them, which would be reimbursed in France, and so on. The adoption of the Convention represents a historical milestone in the fight against organ trafficking. Har­ri­son pre­tended he had no idea how the mi­grants got into his lorry and he was let off with a fine. These regulations range from what constitutes being dead, to what constitutes consent for organ donation, to national honors for organ donation (HRSA, n.d.). According to him the French principle of non-commercialization is deeply rooted in the French culture, but it is not shared by other countries. According to him, it is important to maintain this French ethical cultural exception. Forced Organ Harvesting in China. According to various reports published by David Kilgour and David Matas, and by Ethan Gutmann, an American journalist, this organ surplus comes from Falun Gong prisoners of conscience who have been imprisoned by the hundreds of thousands in Chinese prisons since 1999. According to Madame Boyer what still holds good today in France concerning the non-commercialization of the human body is in keeping with the French way of thinking and as far as ethics are concerned is a genuine treasure. Portugal is the sixth member state to ratify the Convention, which has entered into force in March 2018 and is built around the principle of the “illicit removal of human organs”. The French bill stated that several countries and regions have already amended their national legislation to curb transplant tourism to China, including Spain, Italy, Israel, and Taiwan. Strasbourg, France. Frédérique Dumas, member of the National Assembly, initiated bill No. On Dec. 9, a delegation from DAFOH handed over to Office of UN High Commissioner on Human Rights a petition with over 1.4 million signatures including over 300,000 from Europe asking the High Commissioner to call for an immediate halt of forced organ harvesting on prisoners of conscience, mainly Falun Gong practitioners. The question therefore is the origin of this source of readily available organs. Medical professionals took part in the discussion: Professor Francis Navarro, transplant surgeon at the Montpellier University Hospital; Professor Didier Sicard, former President of the National Consultative Ethics Committee; Professor Belghiti, transplant surgeon at Beaujon University Hospital; Professor Yves Chapuis, member of the Académie de Médecine, former surgeon, and a pioneer of organ transplantation in France; and Professor Patrick Pessaux, transplant surgeon at the Strasbourg University Hospital. The bill’s explanatory statement highlighted the current situation with organ transplants in France. Organ trafficking in Egypt: ‘They locked me in and took my kidney’ This article is more than 1 year old. This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy and ova removal. According to Harold King, forced organ harvesting is a major ethical issue in the international community, and especially in China. The Global Financial Integrity believes that around 10% of all organ donations are made via illegal avenues, with kidneys being the highest-trafficked part of the body. Whether as country of origin, transit or destination for the victims, almost every State in the world is affected by this phenom… Although France signed the Council of Europe Convention against Trafficking in Human Organs in 2019, implementing the treaty and bringing violators to justice in France could be difficult. At the national level, human trafficking is defined and prohibited by the Penal Code, and the different elements of the definition of human trafficking are individually prohibited by the Penal Code as well. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), organ trade is a commercial transplantation where there is a profit, or transplantations that occurs outside of national medical systems. Another researcher, investigative journalist Ethan Gutmann, co-authored a book in 2014 titled The Slaughter after seven years of investigation into organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience in China. In some countries, surgical teams are a very powerful medical body connected to the ruling party, they can act as they see fit and with all means at their disposal in the organization of the organ trade. In France, trafficking in human beings is defined in the Act of 5 August 2013. France prohibits trafficking for sexual exploitation through Article 225 of its penal code, which prescribes penalties that are sufficiently stringent and commensurate with those prescribed for rape. In the United States, there have been 26 pieces of legislation passed aimed at regulating organ transplanting and donation (Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), n.d.). in relation to the evolution of society. According to him, 2006 saw an explosion in the number of organ transplants in China, with more than 500 centers, 8,000 kidney transplants (official), 4,000 liver transplants, with organs taken from death row prisoners and rampant commercialization. Trafficking in organs in Europe Parliamentary Assembly Assemblée parlementaire Recommendation 1611 (2003)1 Trafficking in organs in Europe 1. Trafficking in human beings is the fact of recruiting, transporting, ... the removal of an organ, exploitation of begging, housing or working conditions that are contrary to human dignity, or forcing the victim to commit any crime or offence. Among these studies are investigations by former Canadian Secretary of State for Asia-Pacific David Kilgour and international human rights lawyer David Matas. China appears to be the only country in the world where you can get an organ in less than 2 weeks, which is inconsistent with the clinical and scientific data and figures on the number of people executed in China every year. It is important, according to him, to raise national awareness within the medical and political communities of the huge ethical problem that we have set before us. According to him, in spite of all the resources that were given to these surgeons, the scientific and medical result is zero, and nothing has been left for the international community. Most of these countries are economically weak and have limited education and job opportunities. (Minghui.org) The National Assembly, the lower house of the bicameral French parliament, introduced a bill on September 15, 2020, to stop malpractice related to organ transplants, with an emphasis on illicit transplants carried out outside Europe. Navarro then wanted to give it to Nicolas Sarkozy and Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner, but the government had made it clear that he needed to calm down and be as unobtrusive as possible on the subject of forced organ transplantations in China. According to her, the text to be voted shortly on matters relating to the family at the National Assembly will see a slipping of values and a movement towards the commercialization of human beings by other human beings. The conference gave the floor to professors and French surgeons. Doctors then realized that they had to take these patients back into care by giving them anti-rejection drugs, and that it was sometimes necessary to do another transplant. Illegal organ trafficking can involve the coercion of people to give up their organs, in order to be sold on the black market. In 2008, confronted with the fact of this bank of living organs from China, health professionals from 78 countries gathered at the Istanbul conference and for the first time defined what trafficking organs and the trade in transplantation actually were, and what it meant for a number of surgeons to go to China in the name of scientific cooperation. Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others. The Daily Star (Lebanon) - 2017-04-27 - LEBANON - BEIRUT: Il­le­gal or­gan traf­fick­ing in Le­banon has surged in re­cent years as Syr­ian refugees face ris­ing pres­sure to make money de­spite le­gal bar­ri­ers to work, ac­cord­ing to an in­ves­ti­ga­tion by the BBC re­ported Tues­day. Jacques Belghiti was appointed President of the International Society of Transplantation in 2006. These sites showed there was organized foreign collaboration. Legal definition of trafficking: the act of buying or selling usually illegal goods. According to Xavier Breton, Member of Parliament for the Ain, (who came especially between meetings), there will be an opportunity for discussion on the subject when the new law on Family Affairs comes in. Instead, the organ trade in China concerns, to a greater extent, prisoners of conscience who have committed no criminal offense. He later learned that for an organ transplant in China, ten organs were often taken before finding the right one. In 1984 the United States passed the National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA), which banned the … The trade involves a network of human traffickers including mobile surgeons, brokers, patients, and sellers who meet for cla… Vietnamese migrants are held in makeshift … Back then, there was a flowering of Chinese hospital websites like holiday places promising, like a commercial, a 100 percent transplant success, few complications, 4 minutes of circulatory arrest, a 0 percent rejection rate, and so on. As of today, the extent of organ trafficking is still unknown as to the number of such transplants performed annually. However, the debate on the family will lead to an opening up of the trading of the human body which would be a move backwards for French national ethics. The Council of Europe Convention Against Trafficking in Human Organs. People do not realize what it will mean for society in the future, that their own body can become a commodity for another person. Le fait d'obtenir d'une personne le prélèvement de tissus, de cellules ou de produits de son corps contre un paiement, quelle qu'en soit la forme, est puni de cinq ans d'emprisonnement et de 75000 euros d'amende. In 2015 the Council of Europe introduced a new criminal law convention to address organ trafficking. Following the bill introduced by Valérie Boyer in 2010 in the text on Bioethics, the Department of Health stated that regulations on organ trafficking existed in France and that it was of no concern to the French. Today there is an all-over problem of organ sales between France and abroad, whether it be of blood, oocytes, spermatozoids, genital organs, etc. In 2007, Francis Navarro participated in intercollegiate exchanges between Montpellier and Chengdu in China. Nigerian trafficking networks use migrant and drug trafficking routes through Libya and Italy to transport girls to France. Copyright © 2018 The International Coalition to End Transplant Abuse. According to Valérie Boyer, there is a general change of attitude towards the commercialization of the body in all areas. A few days before the trip, he asked for the donor’s records to get at least a minimum of information on the patient before arriving at Chengdu. Following the bill introduced by Valérie Boyer in 2010 in the text on Bioethics, the Department of Health stated that regulations on organ trafficking existed in France and that it was of no concern to the French. It ravishes communities, endangers businesses, strains government institutions, and drags down the wider economy. Indeed the current regulations on the commercialization of the body in France are still unique worldwide and in Europe. Indeed the current regulations on the commercialization of the body in France … 3316 highlights evidence of forced organ harvesting and areas in which the French Government can take action. According to Professor Sicard, “France is much more deeply rooted in the principle of non-commercialization of the body […]. The plan wishes to place the subject of human trafficking … We are a coalition of lawyers, medical professionals and human rights advocates dedicated to ending organ transplant abuse in and from China. In addition, an independent people's tribunal focused on forced organ harvesting in China was set up in London and chaired by Sir Geoffrey Nice QC, who led the prosecution of Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević, former President of Serbia, at the UN’s International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. The Trafficking in Persons Protocol supplementing the Transnational Organized Crime Convention includes trafficking in persons for the purpose of organ removal. France is bound by international agreements and European Union directives to fight human trafficking. Trafficking in persons for the purpose of organ removal was on the agenda of the Working Group on Trafficking in Persons established by the Conference of Parties to the Organized Crime Convention at its fourth session, from … In January 2009, the government amended its anti-trafficking law to include a specific definition of forced labor. According to Professor Sicard, the central problem is that the French medical profession does not become complicit in matters of forced organ harvesting. The new bill consists of six articles that mandate organ transplants ethics and ensure compliance through verification, auditing, and sanctions. All are facilitated by local criminal networks but those run by organised global criminal syndicates are the most dangerous, mobile, and widespread. Sixty-five members of the parliament signed the bill to uphold bioethics in the medical and scientific community. At the time, Jacques Belghiti’s role was to raise awareness—especially in America where businessmen run large scientific research international corporations—on the unacceptable actions happening in China. Oddly enough, King said, this is exactly the number of people, 1167, who died during the year to donate their organs. The key would be to help other countries to progressively realize our ethical responsibility to the future, which is to say that the non-commercialization of the body be the universal norm rather than the reverse. For Professor Belghiti, selling organs is unacceptable wherever it may take place. The panel, which took place Nov. 27, was led by Member of Parliament for the Bouches-du-Rhône Valérie Boyer and by Dr. Harold King, contact person in France for Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting(DAFOH). By Laurent Gey, Epoch Times | December 11, 2013. In conclusion, Professor Francis Navarro notes that even now, the medical and scientific community is not interested in the problem of organ trafficking in China, and the political community is even less so. Organ trade (also known as Red market) is the trading of human organs, tissues, or other body products, usually for transplantation. As early as 2013, the National Consultative Ethics Committee heard testimony warning that, by training Chinese doctors, French doctors could have become unwittingly complicit in forced organ harvesting. It was at the very same time that he heard about Chinese-American patients going to China to be transplanted and coming back with more or less serious complications. France is indeed one of the few countries in the world to have a law on bioethics, and a strictness in matters of transplantation that is extraordinarily little shared by other countries. According to Jacques Belghiti, what these hospitals and transplantation clinics have in common is that their medical operations have always been associated with a low or total lack of scientific rigor, and no publication has been made in specialized journals. Much overlapping evidence explains the more than 200,000 organ transplants of unknown origin between 2000 and 2008. France must also carry this message on the European front, so as not to stay silent and satisfied with domestic laws and regulations combined with a detached international attitude. Because of the quality of their expertise, French surgeons and transplant surgeons have always had excellent relations with other universities around the world. 9822 3 June 2003 Report Social, Health and Family Affairs Committee Rapporteur: Mrs Ruth-Gaby Vermot-Mangold, Switzerland, SOC Summary As the success of organ transplantation steadily increases, the gap between the supply and demand for organs continues to widen sharply. According to him, this issue will be even more acute in the future with what lies ahead in terms of commercialization of organs. Category: Harold King spoke of his doubts concerning the Hangzou resolution signed a few weeks ago by 169 Chinese hospitals in which the Chinese government plans to limit the use of organs from prisoners sentenced to death and executed. He then met the DAFOH NGO, which confirmed his findings on organ harvesting in China. It also concluded that these practices are “crimes against humanity proven beyond a reasonable doubt.”. PARIS—A panel discussion on organ transplant trafficking and tourism at the French National Assembly addressed the ethical issues involved in organ trafficking abroad, and, in particular, in China. The bill was submitted to president of the legislature. Due to organ shortages, the waiting time for a transplant in the country is usually three years, and this waiting time increases each year. On 18 October 2019, France announced the adoption of a second national action plan against human trafficking, process led by the MIPROF (Interministerial mission for the protection of women against violence and the fight against human trafficking), working closely with associations. According to Didier Sicard, former President of the National Consultative Ethics Committee, France remains a model country in the world regarding organ transplantation. In pole position, the kidney. Through such collaboration, France has trained and formed close relationships with Chinese transplant personnel. Code pénal - Article 511-4. Trafficking in persons is one of the most profitable crimes in the world, after drug trafficking and counterfeit. Initiated by National Assembly Member Frédérique Dumas, bill No. According to Navarro, there were and there are still some French transplant surgeons who are complicit in the development of transplantation in China. 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